By Vern and Lori Gieger
by several names; peccaries, wild boars, and javelinas. They look similar
to pigs, but they are major differences. In Mexico they are known as
Javelinas, (Spanish for javelin or spear) because of their razor sharp
Javelinas are quite social animals usually
traveling in bands from 6 to 12 although as many as 50 have been seen
together. They are most active during early morning and evening hours
when it is cooler. They eat, sleep, and forage together. Like other
group animals they have a dominance hierarchy, wherein a male is dominant,
the remainder of the order is largely determined by size. They are very
vocal; communication within the group consists of various grunts and
squeals signifying, aggression, submission, or alert.
Javelinas have large heads and long snouts
with thick coats of dark gray to blackish brown mix, bristly hair and
band of lighter hair around the neck. A long, stiff mane runs down the
back from head to rump. The adult male is up to 60 inches in length
and is 20 to 24 inches in height, and weighing 40 to 60 pounds. Females
are slightly smaller. Although they are not a small animal you would
definitely smell them before you seen them! They have a very powerful
musk gland. The odor is always apparent, especially when they are excited.
They are somewhat territorial defining
their area by the rubbing of the rump oil gland against rocks, tree
trunks and stumps. Javelinas fend off intruders by squaring off, laying
back their ears, and clattering their canines. When fighting, they charge
head on, bite, and occasionally lock jaws. Territory size varies greatly
depending upon herd size, and habitat.
Javelinas are found in various habitats, from tropical rainforests to
semi arid regions. They do tend to stay near a constant water supply.
They are primarily herbivores, and have complex stomachs for digesting
coarsely chewed food, which includes roots, fruits, insects, worms,
reptiles, beans, nuts, berries, agaves cacti, and prickly pears.
Breeding occurs throughout the year, depending
on climate. When food supplies are abundant more young are raised. Females
usually give birth to two young. Mothers den in hollow logs or hollows
in the ground, retreating from the herd to prevent the newborn from
being eaten by other group members, rejoining the herd one day after
giving birth. Only the older sisters of the newborn are tolerated near
the young; often becoming nursemaids for the new mother. Despite the
high mortality rate in this species, members have a life span of up
to 24 years in captivity.
Predators include humans, bobcats, pumas,
jaguars, and coyotes. For centuries, they have been a source of economic
income due to their skins, food supply and as hunting trophies. The
young are often captured and serve as domestic farm animals.
When fed by humans they lose fear of man.
They have been known to rummage around campsites like raccoons and become
a nuisance. They are not dangerous when left alone but an entire band
can attack if one is wounded or pursued. They have been known to charge
when they or their young are in danger, but under most circumstances,
they will run from humans.
Speedy and agile, social and vocal, cute
but not cuddly; they are actually quite interesting, once you get past